10th Grade Math: Curriculum, Formulas, Worksheets, & More

Is your tenth grader succeeding in math? What should a tenth grader know and do in math class? What are the best curriculum choices at this grade? Find out in this comprehensive guide to all things 10th grade math.

For DIY guidance in choosing the right math course for your tenth grader, start with the free placement tests here. Those results will help you identify the perfect course for your teen’s current math abilities. Because math is so sequential, it’s critical to use a level for which your child is fully prepared. Jumping ahead will be both pointless and frustrating. 

Take a peek at the scope and sequence for each math curriculum here.

If choosing math curriculum or resources for your tenth grader is confusing, reach out to an Advisor. Their help is absolutely free and they love walking parents through their options. 

Tenth Grade Math Curriculum

For the sophomore year of high school, Sonlight recommends two robust curriculum options: Saxon Math and Math-U-See. Which particular level you choose will depend on what math courses your student has previously covered and their level of mastery with them.

Saxon Math

While Saxon officially slots the Saxon Advanced Math Program for the 10th grade year, your tenth grader may actually need to use Algebra 2 or even Algebra 1.

In the Saxon Advanced Math Program, your student will learn advanced mathematical concepts by watching the included DIVE DVD. Some of the topics covered include combinations and permutations, working with matrices and their determinants, conic sections, trigonomic functions and their inverses, trigonomic identities, and many mathematical theorems.

If your student is not ready for these concepts, don’t worry. Taking the Saxon placement test can confirm that Algebra 2, or even Algebra 1, is a better fit. Math is not something to rush. Your student will be more successful in the long run if you move through the higher level programs at a pace which facilitates complete mastery.


In its standard math sequence, Math-U-See assigns Algebra 2 for the 10th grade year. But your tenth grader may actually be better suited for Geometry or Algebra 1.

In Math-U-See Algebra 2, your student will watch a short video teaching segment and then practice the concept over several days. There are ample practice problems, and when your student feels they have mastered the concept, there is a short test for each unit. Concepts covered in this program include working with exponents, rational expressions and equations, factoring, graphing, imaginary and complex numbers, using the quadratic formula, and more.

If your student has not mastered the content presented in Math-U-See Geometry or Algebra 1, consider using one of those programs for tenth grade instead. There is not a single course of study that works for every student. Each student learns at their own pace, and pushing your student to do a math program they are not ready for will only result in frustration for both of you. Use the Math-U-See placement tool to ensure that you place your student in the correct level.

Tenth Grade Math Worksheets

Download free tenth grade math worksheets, lessons, and tests with these sample files:

  1. Math-U-See Quadratic Formula Math Lesson

This free sample includes practice problems, review worksheets, a test, and an answer key.

  1. Saxon Math Advanced Math 10th Grade Test

Take a peek at the kind of math tenth graders are expected to know with this math worksheet.

  1. Saxon Advanced Math Lesson 27: Signs of Trigonometric Functions page 1 & page 2

Tenth Grade Math Formulas/Charts

Your tenth grader will probably need to use these math formulas, equations, and rules. 

Tenth Grade Math Formulas/ChartsTenth Grade Math Formulas/Charts

Tenth Grade Math Problems & Equations

Tenth graders will continue to explore mathematical concepts including 

  • conic sections
  • logarithms
  • systems of equations
  • complex numbers
  • radical expressions and equations
  • graphing

Tenth Grade Math Numbers & Operations

In tenth grade, your student will continue to practice working with

  • imaginary and complex numbers
  • graphing equations and conic sections
  • solving real world problems that involve modeling with conics
  • trigonometric ratios and identities

Tenth Grade Math Pre-algebra & Algebra

Tenth grade math concepts build on algebraic concepts that have been previously learned. If your student is struggling with a concept, take time to review it before moving on. Frequent review to check mastery reduces frustration and the “I hate math” attitude that is so common among teens. Concepts like factoring quadratic equations, simplifying radical expressions, working with complex fractions, and solving linear equations continue to be a major part of algebra 2 and advanced mathematics for 10th grade math.

Tenth Grade Math Standards

Because high schools have varying math sequences in the upper grades, high school math standards are not determined so much by grade as by topic. For example, see the Common Core math standards here, divided into these high school disciplines:

  • Number and Quantity
  • Algebra
  • Functions
  • Modeling
  • Geometry
  • Statistics and Probability 

Most states have adopted these standards, but you can verify with your state department of education to see if your state is one of the few with its own standards. 

Tenth Grade Math State Tests

By the time a student is in tenth grade, state standardized tests are often replaced by college entrance exams like the ACT and SAT. A tenth grader who is working in Algebra 2 or Advanced Mathematics may want to take a first pass at the SAT or ACT with the expectation of taking it again in the 11th grade year. Taking the ACT or SAT 2-3 times is typical as students aim to increase their score to be eligible or more competitive for scholarship monies. 

If you want your tenth grader to participate in the National PSAT, contact your local school board’s homeschool liaison for help in registering. The test is usually given on the second Tuesday in October

Please check with your state’s board of education to see if your tenth grader is required to participate in a state mandated standardized test or if the PSAT, SAT, or ACT will fulfill the requirements.

Tenth Grade Math Vocabulary

Here’s a list of key math vocabulary needed for 10th grade math: 

  • Reciprocal Function, Radical Function
  • Angle of Depression, Angle of Elevation
  • Amplitude, Period, Phase Shift
  • Arithmetic Sequence, Geometric Sequence
  • Coefficient Matrix, Determinant
  • Complex Conjugate
  • Imaginary Number, Complex Number
  • Cosecant, Secant, Cotangent
  • Directrix, Foci, Major Axis, Minor Axis
  • Function notation
  • Inverse Function
The T. Family, Sonlighters from Waukesha, WIThe T. Family, Sonlighters from Waukesha, WI

Tenth Grade Math Materials, Supplements & Manipulatives

If you find that your student needs math review or simply wants to practice algebraic concepts in an innovative way, the Life of Fred series is a great tool. In this series, Fred explores the math that is all around him. Thanks to their unconventional approach, these books frequently win over so-called math haters. 

Math for 10th Graders: FAQ

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